首页 > >
Beijing 2022 conducts water******
BEIJING, Dec. 3 (Xinhua) -- Snow making for Alpine skiing events at the 2022 Winter Olympics is underway in Beijing's Yanqing district and is expected to be completed by mid-January.。
The water needed for snow making at the Yanqing competition zone, where Alpine skiing events will be staged, will account for just 1.6 percent of water used in the area, according to the Beijing Water Authority.。
In the Zhangjiakou competition zone, where freestyle skiing, snowboarding, cross-country skiing, biathlon and ski jumping events will take place, the water demand during the Games will account for 9.8 percent of the total current water consumption in Zhangjiakou's Chongli district.。
"The man-made snow will not affect the local water usage," said Zhao Weidong, a spokesman for the Beijing 2022 organizing committee (BOCOG).。
Competition snow requires a higher density than recreational snow in order to meet the requirements of the FIS, professional skiing's governing body, and to ensure conditions are consistent for each competitor.。
Man-made snow was first used at the 1980 Lake Placid Olympic Winter Games. Around 90 percent of snow used at the Alpine skiing venue for the PyeongChang 2018 Winter Olympics was artificial, while man-made snow was also a feature of Vancouver 2010 and Sochi 2014.。
In line with Beijing 2022's goal of hosting a sustainable and eco-friendly Games, a series of water-conserving techniques have been adopted in snowmaking, according to BOCOG.。
"For Alpine skiing, natural snowfall is incapable of providing sufficient competition snow. Even if the natural snow depth reaches 3m, it can only be compressed into a snow layer of 30cm to 40cm in depth, still far off the requirement for Olympic tracks, which is also one of the reasons why man-made snow has been widely used in snow sports in Winter Olympics worldwide," said Lyu Hongyou, an operations manager at Yanqing.。
Snow-making is not an irreversible consumption of water resources; instead, the snow-melt water can be recycled into reservoirs. Three reservoirs with a total maximum water storage of 160,000 cubic meters can collect the snow-melt and rainwater through conduits in the Yanqing competition zone and pump up the water for snowmaking in the venues, forming an internal recycle of water resources, said Sun Xianghui, an engineer from Beijing Beikong Jing'ao Construction Corporation.。
In the south of Yanqing, a sewage treatment station has been established to process the sanitary sewage from the competition zone into reclaimed water for plant-watering and toilet use, Sun added.。
During the snowmaking process for Beijing 2022 venues, the collected natural precipitation and the overland runoff will be primarily used, and an intelligent system will help decide the timing for snowmaking based on the weather conditions, also in an endeavor to further save water resources and improve efficiency, Zhao said. Enditem。
Awe: The 'little earthquake' that could free your mind
Whenever Ethan Kross finds himself in a mental rut of worrying and negative self-talk, he walks five blocks to his local arboretum and contemplates one of the magnificent trees in front of him, and the astonishing power of nature.
If he can’t get to the arboretum, he spends a few moments thinking about the astonishing possibilities of aeroplanes and spacecraft. “I think about how we went from struggling to start fires, just a few thousand years ago, to being able to land safely on another planet,” he says.
The aim, in each case, is to evoke awe – which he defines as “the wonder that we feel when we encounter something that we can’t easily explain”.
Kross’s habits are founded in scientific evidence. As a professor of psychology at the University of Michigan, he knows feelings of awe can have a truly profound influence on the mind – enhancing our memory and creativity as well as inspiring us to act more altruistically to the people around us. It can also have a profound impact on our mental health, by allowing us to put our anxieties into perspective.
克罗斯是密歇根大学（University of Michigan）的一名心理学教授，他这个习惯是有科学依据的。体验令人惊叹的事物会对大脑产生真正深远的影响——增强我们的记忆力和创造力，并激励我们对周围的人更加无私。它对我们的心理健康产生深远的影响，让我们正确看待自己的焦虑。
Because most of us only experience awe sporadically, we remain unaware of its benefits. When we’re feeling down, we may be more likely to look for light relief in a comedy, for instance – seeking feelings of amusement that are not nearly so powerful. Yet generating awe can trigger a great mental shift, making it a potentially essential tool to improve our health and wellbeing. And there are many ways for us to cultivate the emotion in our daily lives.
Michelle Shiota, a professor of social psychology at Arizona State University, US, was one of the early pioneers to discover the benefits of awe. She has a particular interest in the ways it can remove our “mental filters” to encourage more flexible thinking.
美国亚利桑那州立大学（Arizona State University）社会心理学教授米歇尔·施塔（Michelle Shiota）是最早发现敬畏益处者之一。她特别感兴趣的是，敬畏可以消除我们的“心理过滤器”，以鼓励更灵活的思维。
Consider memory. If someone tells us a story, we typically remember what we think we should have heard, rather than the specific details of the event. This can mean that we miss unexpected or unusual elements that add much-needed clarity and specificity to what happened. We may even form false memories for events that did not happen, but which we assume are likely to have occurred in that kind of situation.
A few years ago, Shiota decided to test whether eliciting a feeling of awe could prevent this from occurring. She first asked the participants to view one of three videos: an awe-inspiring science film that took viewers on a journey from the outer cosmos to sub-atomic particles; a heart-warming film about a figure skater winning an Olympic gold medal; or a neutral film about the building of a cinder-block wall.
Participants then listened to a five-minute story describing a couple going out for a romantic dinner and answered questions about what they had heard. Some of these questions concerned the things you would typically expect at any meal – “Did the waiter pour the wine?” – while others concerned atypical information, such as whether the waiter wore glasses. As Shiota had hypothesised, the participants who had seen the science film were more accurate at remembering the details of what they had heard than those who had seen the heart-warming or neutral films.
Why would this be? Shiota points out the brain is constantly forming predictions of what will happen next; it uses its experiences to form mental stimulations that guide our perception, attention and behaviour. Awe-inspiring experiences – with their sense of grandeur, wonder and amazement – may confound those expectations, creating a “little earthquake” in the mind that causes the brain to reassess its assumptions and to pay more attention to what is actually in front of it.
“The mind dials back its ‘predictive coding’ to just look around and gather information,” she says. Besides boosting our memories for details, this can improve critical thinking, she points out – as people pay more attention to the specific nuances of an argument, rather than relying on their intuitions about whether it feels persuasive or not.
This capacity to drop our assumptions and see the world and its problems afresh might also explain why the emotion contributes to greater creativity. Take a study by Alice Chirico and colleagues at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart in Milan, Italy, published in 2018. Participants who took a walk through a virtual reality forest scored higher on tests of original thinking than those who viewed a more mundane video of hens wandering in the grass. The awe-inspired participants were more innovative when asked how to improve a child’s toy, for example.
这种放下假设，重新看待世界及其问题的能力，或许也解释了为什么情绪有助于激发更大的创造力。以意大利米兰圣心天主教大学（Catholic University of the Sacred Heart）的爱丽丝·基里科（Alice Chirico）及其同事于2018年发表的一项研究为例，那些在虚拟现实森林中散步的参与者，在原创思维测试中得分高于那些观看母鸡在草地上漫步视频的参与者。例如，当被问及如何改进孩子的玩具时，受到“敬畏”激励的参与者更有创造力。
The Attenborough Effect
Awe’s most transformative effects may concern the way we view ourselves. When we feel wonder at something truly incredible and grand, “we perceive ourselves as smaller and less significant in relation to the rest of the world”, says Shiota. One consequence of this is greater altruism. “When I am less focused on myself, on my own goals and needs and the thoughts in my head, I have more bandwidth to notice you and what you may be experiencing.”
To measure these effects, a team led by Paul Piff at the University of California, Irvine asked a third of their participants to watch a five-minute clip of the BBC’s Planet Earth series, composed of grand, sweeping shots of scenic vistas, mountains, plains, forests and canyon. (The rest watched a five-minute clip of funny animal videos, or a neutral video about DIY.)
为了测量这些影响，加州大学欧文分校（University of California, Irvine）的保罗·皮夫（Paul Piff）领导一个团队，要求三分之一的参与者观看BBC的《地球脉动》（Planet Earth）系列节目的五分钟剪辑，其中包含宏伟的风景、山脉、平原、森林和峡谷的镜头。（其余的人观看了一段五分钟的有趣的动物视频，或者一段关于DIY的中性视频。）
The participants then rated the extent to which they agreed with four statements, such as “I feel the presence of something greater than myself” and “I feel small and insignificant”. Finally, they took part in an experiment known as the “dictator game”, in which they were given a resource – in this case, 10 raffle tickets for a $100 gift voucher – that they could choose to share with a partner, if they so wished.
The feelings of awe produced a significant change in their generosity, increasing the number of tickets that the participants shared with their partners. Through subsequent statistical analyses, the researchers were able to show that this came through the changes to the sense of self. The smaller the participants felt, the more generous they were.
To replicate the finding in a more natural setting, one of the researchers took students on a walk through a grove of Tasmanian eucalyptus trees – which grow to more than 200 feet (60 metres). As the students contemplated the plants’ splendour, the researchers “accidentally” dropped the pens they were carrying – and noted whether the participant offered to pick them up. Sure enough, they found that the participants were more helpful, during this awe-inspiring walk, than students who had instead spent the time contemplating a tall (but not very majestic) building.
Last, but not least, are the enormous benefits for our mental health. Like the boosts to our generosity, this comes from the shrunken sense of self, which seems to reduce ruminative thinking.
This is potentially very important, since rumination is a known risk factor for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. “You're often zoomed in so narrowly on the situation that you're not thinking about anything else,” says Kross, whose book Chatter explores the effects of this negative self-talk. Awe forces us to broaden our perspective, he says, so that we break free of the ruminative cycle of thinking. “When you are in the presence of something vast and indescribable, you feel smaller, and so does your negative chatter,” he says.
As evidence, Kross points to one extraordinary experiment by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley. The participants were military veterans and youth from underserved communities, many of whom were suffering serious life stress. (Some were even experiencing the lingering symptoms of PTSD.)
作为证据，克罗斯指出了加州大学伯克利分校（University of California, Berkeley）研究人员进行的一项非凡实验。参加者是退伍军人和问题青年，他们中许多人承受着严重的生活压力。（有些人甚至有创伤后应激障碍的后遗症。）
They had all previously signed up for a white-water rafting trip on Utah’s Green River, sponsored by a charitable organisation. Before and after the trip, they were questioned about their general psychological wellbeing – including their feelings of stress and their capacity to cope with life’s challenges. After each day of rafting, the participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that measured their feelings of awe, amusement, contentment, gratitude, joy and pride.
As you might hope, the trip was generally very enjoyable for most of the participants. It was the feelings of awe, however, that predicted the biggest improvements in their feelings of stress and their overall wellbeing.
Clearly, these were exceptional circumstances – but the researchers noted very similar effects in a second study that examined students’ everyday contact with nature. Once again, they found that experiences of awe had a far greater impact on the students’ long-term wellbeing, compared to contentment, amusement, gratitude, joy and pride.
Awesome or awful?
Before we become too awestruck by this research, Shiota warns scientists still need to explore whether this potent emotion has any negative sides. She suspects that awe may explain the appeal of many conspiracy theories, for example – with their intricate and mysterious explanations of the world’s workings.
In general, however, the benefits of awe are worth considering whenever we feel that our thinking has become stuck in an unproductive or unhealthy groove. “The capacity to step outside of ourselves is a really valuable skill,” says Kross. While he finds walking in his local arboretum, and thoughts about space travel, to bring the necessary feelings of wonder and reverential respect, he suggests that we will all have our personal preferences. “Try to identify what your own triggers are,” he suggests.
For Shiota, the possibilities are as infinite as the universe. “Stars in the night sky remind us of the universe beyond our experience; the sound of the ocean reminds us of its enormous depths; vivid sunsets remind us how vast and thick the atmosphere surrounding our planet is,” she says. That’s not to mention the sublime experiences offered by music, film or art. “It's all about choosing to experience and attend to the extraordinary in our world, rather than that which is, for us, routine.”
10 月 15 日，抖音在南京举办第三届创作者大会。抖音副总裁支颖发表演讲时表示，如今，整个短视频市场日活用户已超过 10 亿。视频直播已然成为一种国民级的表达方式。同时，短视频和抖音的普及，降低了表达门槛，促进了信息的流动，让更多人有了表达自己和被看见的机会。
支颖介绍，经过五年的发展，抖音上的创作者来源更广，身份更多元，覆盖老师、运动员、艺术家、中小企业主等个人和企业、学校等机构，截止到今年 7 月，全国企业在抖音上开设的账号已经超过 800 万个。他们不仅在抖音创作，也在抖音经营着自己的事业。
我是支颖，16 年加入抖音团队。最早张楠跟我聊，说要做一个 UGC 短视频产品，来连接人、记录生活。我觉得，这很有意思，没见过，就加入进来。这五年，我在抖音团队参与过很多很杂的工作，运营、市场、产品、策略甚至安全等等。现在主要负责抖音的运营和市场。
今年是抖音第三年举办创作者大会，也是抖音上线的第五个年头。回想 2016 年抖音刚刚上线的时候，短视频还被很多人认为是年轻人用的小众对口型产品，到今天，整个短视频，包括视频号、快手，整体的日活用户已经超过了 10 亿人。可以说，视频直播已经成为一种国民级的表达方式。
这点表现在抖音，就是我们的创作者来源更广，身份更多元了。在座的创作者朋友其实都来自各行各业，有老师、运动员、艺术家、中小企业主等等。除了个人，还包括企业、学校等机构，截止到今年 7 月全国企业在抖音上开设的账号已经超过 800 万个。大家不仅在抖音创作，也在抖音经营着自己的事业。
我关注了一个和我差不多年纪的创作者，叫乡村小乔。她大学毕业后，返回家乡，通过抖音做三农创业，在记录乡村生活和美食、农村新鲜事的同时，也帮助各地老乡们销售农产品。去年年底，小乔在老家开了一个棉被厂。开业当天，提前准备的 2000 多床棉被在抖音直播间一抢而空。现在，小乔的棉被厂经营得不错，还帮 15 个老乡解决了就业。
大家都知道北京大学，但大家肯定不知道北大是抖音的一个「大主播」。去年一年，北京大学在抖音做了 199 场直播，平均下来每两天就有一场，内容基本都是北大老师的公开课或者讲座。北大现在有超过 430 万粉丝，我们都开玩笑说，北大在抖音有 430 万旁听生。
过去一年，像北大这样的高校直播公开课，在抖音上有超过 12000 场。很多网友说，没想到我也能在抖音上名校了。今天我们也邀请到北京大学的老师跟我们分享经验心得。
前段时间，秦皇岛的反诈民警老陈火了。他在抖音通过直播连线的方式推广反诈 app，效果特别好。老陈这个做法带动了很多平台上其他创作者、主播参与进来，动员自己的粉丝下载反诈 APP，国家反诈中心 APP 有很长一段时间都排在苹果等多个应用商店下载榜第一位。
Tonga volcano relief efforts face challenges: UN******
This handout photo taken on January 17, 2022, and received on January 18 from the New Zealand Defence Force shows a view from a P-3K2 Orion aircraft of an area covered in volcanic ash in Tonga, after the eruption of the Hunga-Tonga - Hunga-Haa'pai volcano on January 15.。
Relief efforts following the Tonga volcano eruption face the challenge of severed communications, falling ash closing the major airport and strict anti-COVID measures, UN officials said on Tuesday.。
They said the casualty toll remained at three dead and an unknown number of people injured.。
"Needs assessments by the Tongan authorities are ongoing and should provide a better estimate of what is required of the international community," said Stephane Dujarric, the chief spokesman for UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres. "We are on standby with teams and emergency supplies, and stocks in Tonga are being readied for distribution once humanitarian needs are identified."
"Our staff there are working to assist coordination and response efforts in-country," he told a regular press briefing. There are 23 UN workers in Tonga – 22 local hires and one international staffer.。
In a video conference, Jonathan Veitch, the UN acting resident and humanitarian coordinator for Fiji, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu, spelled out challenges following Saturday's eruption.。
Communications within the 36 inhabited of the nation's 169 islands were limited to satellite phones, as was the capital Nuku'alofa and between Tonga and the outside world.。
The major submarine communications cable was severed, cutting voice, video and Internet services. Still, Veitch said, "I'm able to send basic messages by SMS (Small Message Service –text) to our colleagues through satellite systems, and we hope that soon phones will be back up and running."
While the natural choice for humanitarians is to fly in relief, Veitch said the Nuku'alofa airport remained closed because workers were unable to finish clearing ashfall. He said ships sailing from Australia and New Zealand would take six to eight days to arrive in a Tonga port.。
He also said there is a question of just how the authorities would handle people coming to Tonga when it has extremely strict protocols against COVID-19. No cases have been reported in the nation. Authorities are keen to keep the country COVID-free, especially in light of past Pacific island populations wiped out by rampant disease.。
While there are no casualties among the 23 UN workers, there are an unknown number of injuries on outlying islands, Veitch said.。
He said damage reports from those islands are coming in slowly. The coordinator said it is possible that damage on the outlying islands may not be as severe since they are further from the volcaNo. The eruption occurred only 65 km from the main island of Tongatapu, home of the capital.。
"We are concerned about the water situation," Veitch said. "I haven't heard that people have run out of water which would be obviously an emergency situation. Of course we have heard that shops are running out of food and also there has been quite a lot of ... mass purchasing as always happens in these circumstances, including of water and of food supplies too."
Technicians are examining a desalination plant on the main island to see if it is ready to go back online. The expected ships carry water, food, emergency supplies and even desalination plants.。
The sooner, the better to get the supplies, the coordinator said. "It is urgent."