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時間:2022-08-15 來源:本站 點擊:258次
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Beijing 2022 conducts water******

BEIJING, Dec. 3 (Xinhua) -- Snow making for Alpine skiing events at the 2022 Winter Olympics is underway in Beijing's Yanqing district and is expected to be completed by mid-January.。

The water needed for snow making at the Yanqing competition zone, where Alpine skiing events will be staged, will account for just 1.6 percent of water used in the area, according to the Beijing Water Authority.。

In the Zhangjiakou competition zone, where freestyle skiing, snowboarding, cross-country skiing, biathlon and ski jumping events will take place, the water demand during the Games will account for 9.8 percent of the total current water consumption in Zhangjiakou's Chongli district.。

"The man-made snow will not affect the local water usage," said Zhao Weidong, a spokesman for the Beijing 2022 organizing committee (BOCOG).。

Competition snow requires a higher density than recreational snow in order to meet the requirements of the FIS, professional skiing's governing body, and to ensure conditions are consistent for each competitor.。

Man-made snow was first used at the 1980 Lake Placid Olympic Winter Games. Around 90 percent of snow used at the Alpine skiing venue for the PyeongChang 2018 Winter Olympics was artificial, while man-made snow was also a feature of Vancouver 2010 and Sochi 2014.。

In line with Beijing 2022's goal of hosting a sustainable and eco-friendly Games, a series of water-conserving techniques have been adopted in snowmaking, according to BOCOG.。

"For Alpine skiing, natural snowfall is incapable of providing sufficient competition snow. Even if the natural snow depth reaches 3m, it can only be compressed into a snow layer of 30cm to 40cm in depth, still far off the requirement for Olympic tracks, which is also one of the reasons why man-made snow has been widely used in snow sports in Winter Olympics worldwide," said Lyu Hongyou, an operations manager at Yanqing.。

Snow-making is not an irreversible consumption of water resources; instead, the snow-melt water can be recycled into reservoirs. Three reservoirs with a total maximum water storage of 160,000 cubic meters can collect the snow-melt and rainwater through conduits in the Yanqing competition zone and pump up the water for snowmaking in the venues, forming an internal recycle of water resources, said Sun Xianghui, an engineer from Beijing Beikong Jing'ao Construction Corporation.。

In the south of Yanqing, a sewage treatment station has been established to process the sanitary sewage from the competition zone into reclaimed water for plant-watering and toilet use, Sun added.。

During the snowmaking process for Beijing 2022 venues, the collected natural precipitation and the overland runoff will be primarily used, and an intelligent system will help decide the timing for snowmaking based on the weather conditions, also in an endeavor to further save water resources and improve efficiency, Zhao said. Enditem。

双语热点:敬畏心理学:体验“心灵震撼”对自己有何好处******

如果发现自己陷入焦虑和消极情绪,不妨试着畅想浩瀚的宇宙,或是体验大自然的震撼魅力。体验令人惊叹的事物会对大脑产生真正深远的影响——增强我们的记忆力和创造力,并激励我们对周围的人更加无私。它对我们的心理健康产生深远的影响,让我们正确看待自己的焦虑。

Awe: The 'little earthquake' that could free your mind

Whenever Ethan Kross finds himself in a mental rut of worrying and negative self-talk, he walks five blocks to his local arboretum and contemplates one of the magnificent trees in front of him, and the astonishing power of nature.

每当伊桑·克罗斯(Ethan Kross)发现自己陷入焦虑和消极的情绪时,他就会走五个街区到当地的植物园,凝视一棵宏伟的树木,体会大自然惊人的力量。

If he can’t get to the arboretum, he spends a few moments thinking about the astonishing possibilities of aeroplanes and spacecraft. “I think about how we went from struggling to start fires, just a few thousand years ago, to being able to land safely on another planet,” he says.

如果去不了植物园,他就会花一些时间思考飞机和宇宙飞船的伟大。他说,“我想到几千年前,人类钻木取火,如今已经能够在另一个星球上安全着陆。”

The aim, in each case, is to evoke awe – which he defines as “the wonder that we feel when we encounter something that we can’t easily explain”.

这些都是为了唤起内心的崇敬和敬畏——他将这定义为“遇到难以解释的事物时内心所感受到的奇迹”。

Kross’s habits are founded in scientific evidence. As a professor of psychology at the University of Michigan, he knows feelings of awe can have a truly profound influence on the mind – enhancing our memory and creativity as well as inspiring us to act more altruistically to the people around us. It can also have a profound impact on our mental health, by allowing us to put our anxieties into perspective.

克罗斯是密歇根大学(University of Michigan)的一名心理学教授,他这个习惯是有科学依据的。体验令人惊叹的事物会对大脑产生真正深远的影响——增强我们的记忆力和创造力,并激励我们对周围的人更加无私。它对我们的心理健康产生深远的影响,让我们正确看待自己的焦虑。

Because most of us only experience awe sporadically, we remain unaware of its benefits. When we’re feeling down, we may be more likely to look for light relief in a comedy, for instance – seeking feelings of amusement that are not nearly so powerful. Yet generating awe can trigger a great mental shift, making it a potentially essential tool to improve our health and wellbeing. And there are many ways for us to cultivate the emotion in our daily lives.

因为大多数人只是偶尔体验敬畏,所以仍然没有意识到它的好处。当我们情绪低落的时候,我们更可能在喜剧中寻找放松,例如,寻找娱乐的感觉,但这没有那么强大。产生敬畏却可以引发巨大的心理转变,成为改善我们健康和幸福的必要工具。在日常生活中,我们有很多方法来培养敬畏之情。

Little earthquakes

震撼心灵

Michelle Shiota, a professor of social psychology at Arizona State University, US, was one of the early pioneers to discover the benefits of awe. She has a particular interest in the ways it can remove our “mental filters” to encourage more flexible thinking.

美国亚利桑那州立大学(Arizona State University)社会心理学教授米歇尔·施塔(Michelle Shiota)是最早发现敬畏益处者之一。她特别感兴趣的是,敬畏可以消除我们的“心理过滤器”,以鼓励更灵活的思维。

Consider memory. If someone tells us a story, we typically remember what we think we should have heard, rather than the specific details of the event. This can mean that we miss unexpected or unusual elements that add much-needed clarity and specificity to what happened. We may even form false memories for events that did not happen, but which we assume are likely to have occurred in that kind of situation.

来看看记忆。如果有人给我们讲了一个故事,我们通常会记住我们认为应该听到的内容,而不是整个事件的具体细节。这可能意味着我们错过了意想不到的或不寻常的元素,而这些元素又加强了事情的清晰度和特异性。我们甚至可能对没有发生过的事情形成错误的记忆,但我们认为这些事情很可能发生过。

A few years ago, Shiota decided to test whether eliciting a feeling of awe could prevent this from occurring. She first asked the participants to view one of three videos: an awe-inspiring science film that took viewers on a journey from the outer cosmos to sub-atomic particles; a heart-warming film about a figure skater winning an Olympic gold medal; or a neutral film about the building of a cinder-block wall.

几年前,施塔决定测试敬畏感是否能防止错误记忆的发生。她首先要求参与者观看三个视频中的一个:一个令人敬畏的科学电影,带领观众观察外宇宙到亚原子粒子的旅程;一部关于花样滑冰运动员赢得奥运金牌的暖心电影;或一个关于建筑的中性片。

Participants then listened to a five-minute story describing a couple going out for a romantic dinner and answered questions about what they had heard. Some of these questions concerned the things you would typically expect at any meal – “Did the waiter pour the wine?” – while others concerned atypical information, such as whether the waiter wore glasses. As Shiota had hypothesised, the participants who had seen the science film were more accurate at remembering the details of what they had heard than those who had seen the heart-warming or neutral films.

然后参与者听一个五分钟的故事,描述一对情侣外出吃浪漫晚餐,然后回答问题。这些问题中有一些是你在任何一顿饭上都能想到的——“服务员倒酒了吗?”。而另一些人则关注不寻常的信息,比如服务员是否戴眼镜。正如施塔所假设的那样,看过科幻片的参与者比看过暖心片或中性片的参与者更能准确地记住细节。

Why would this be? Shiota points out the brain is constantly forming predictions of what will happen next; it uses its experiences to form mental stimulations that guide our perception, attention and behaviour. Awe-inspiring experiences – with their sense of grandeur, wonder and amazement – may confound those expectations, creating a “little earthquake” in the mind that causes the brain to reassess its assumptions and to pay more attention to what is actually in front of it.

为什么会这样呢?施塔指出,大脑不断地对将要发生的事情做出预测:利用自己的经历形成心理刺激,引导我们的感知、注意力和行为。令人敬畏的经历——带有宏伟、惊奇和感叹的感觉,可能会打破这些期望,在头脑中制造一个“小地震”,使大脑重新评估其假设,并更多地关注实际发生在眼前的事情。

“The mind dials back its ‘predictive coding’ to just look around and gather information,” she says. Besides boosting our memories for details, this can improve critical thinking, she points out – as people pay more attention to the specific nuances of an argument, rather than relying on their intuitions about whether it feels persuasive or not.

她说,“大脑会调整它的‘预测编码’,变为仅仅环顾四周,收集信息。”她指出,除了增强我们对细节的记忆之外,这还可以提高批判性思维——因为人们变得更关注一项论点的具体细微差别,而不是依靠他们的直觉判断它是否有说服力。

This capacity to drop our assumptions and see the world and its problems afresh might also explain why the emotion contributes to greater creativity. Take a study by Alice Chirico and colleagues at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart in Milan, Italy, published in 2018. Participants who took a walk through a virtual reality forest scored higher on tests of original thinking than those who viewed a more mundane video of hens wandering in the grass. The awe-inspired participants were more innovative when asked how to improve a child’s toy, for example.

这种放下假设,重新看待世界及其问题的能力,或许也解释了为什么情绪有助于激发更大的创造力。以意大利米兰圣心天主教大学(Catholic University of the Sacred Heart)的爱丽丝·基里科(Alice Chirico)及其同事于2018年发表的一项研究为例,那些在虚拟现实森林中散步的参与者,在原创思维测试中得分高于那些观看母鸡在草地上漫步视频的参与者。例如,当被问及如何改进孩子的玩具时,受到“敬畏”激励的参与者更有创造力。

The Attenborough Effect

“艾登堡效应”

Awe’s most transformative effects may concern the way we view ourselves. When we feel wonder at something truly incredible and grand, “we perceive ourselves as smaller and less significant in relation to the rest of the world”, says Shiota. One consequence of this is greater altruism. “When I am less focused on myself, on my own goals and needs and the thoughts in my head, I have more bandwidth to notice you and what you may be experiencing.”

敬畏产生的影响,最具变革性的可能与我们看待自己的方式有关。施塔说,当我们对一些真正不可思议和伟大的事情感到惊讶时,“我们会觉得自己相对于世界显得渺小和不那么重要”。这样做的一个后果就是更大的利他主义。“当我不那么关注自己,不那么关注自己的目标、需求和脑海中的想法时,我就有更多的空间去关注你和你可能正在经历的事情。”

To measure these effects, a team led by Paul Piff at the University of California, Irvine asked a third of their participants to watch a five-minute clip of the BBC’s Planet Earth series, composed of grand, sweeping shots of scenic vistas, mountains, plains, forests and canyon. (The rest watched a five-minute clip of funny animal videos, or a neutral video about DIY.)

为了测量这些影响,加州大学欧文分校(University of California, Irvine)的保罗·皮夫(Paul Piff)领导一个团队,要求三分之一的参与者观看BBC的《地球脉动》(Planet Earth)系列节目的五分钟剪辑,其中包含宏伟的风景、山脉、平原、森林和峡谷的镜头。(其余的人观看了一段五分钟的有趣的动物视频,或者一段关于DIY的中性视频。)

The participants then rated the extent to which they agreed with four statements, such as “I feel the presence of something greater than myself” and “I feel small and insignificant”. Finally, they took part in an experiment known as the “dictator game”, in which they were given a resource – in this case, 10 raffle tickets for a $100 gift voucher – that they could choose to share with a partner, if they so wished.

然后,参与者对四种陈述的支持程度进行打分,比如“我感到有比我自己更重要的东西存在”和“我感到自己渺小和微不足道”。最后,他们参加了一项被称为“独裁者游戏”的实验,在这个实验中,他们得到了一项资源——10张彩票可以换取100美元的礼券——如果他们愿意,他们可以选择与伴侣分享。

The feelings of awe produced a significant change in their generosity, increasing the number of tickets that the participants shared with their partners. Through subsequent statistical analyses, the researchers were able to show that this came through the changes to the sense of self. The smaller the participants felt, the more generous they were.

敬畏的感觉使他们的慷慨程度发生了显著变化,增加了参与者与伴侣分享的数量。通过随后的统计分析,研究人员能够表明,这是通过自我意识的改变,参与者感觉自己越渺小,他们就越慷慨。

To replicate the finding in a more natural setting, one of the researchers took students on a walk through a grove of Tasmanian eucalyptus trees – which grow to more than 200 feet (60 metres). As the students contemplated the plants’ splendour, the researchers “accidentally” dropped the pens they were carrying – and noted whether the participant offered to pick them up. Sure enough, they found that the participants were more helpful, during this awe-inspiring walk, than students who had instead spent the time contemplating a tall (but not very majestic) building.

为了在更自然的环境中复制这一发现,一名研究人员带着学生们在塔斯马尼亚的桉树林中散步,这些桉树可以长到200英尺(60米)以上。当学生们在观察这些植物的壮观时,研究人员“不小心”掉了他们携带的钢笔——并注意到参与者是否主动把它们捡起来。果然,他们发现,在这次令人惊叹的散步中,参与者比那些把时间花在看一座高大(但不是很宏伟)建筑上的学生更乐于助人。

Gaining perspective

对自己有何好处?

Last, but not least, are the enormous benefits for our mental health. Like the boosts to our generosity, this comes from the shrunken sense of self, which seems to reduce ruminative thinking.

最后,但并非最不重要的是,敬畏对我们的心理健康有巨大的好处。就像我们慷慨的提升一样,这来自于自我感觉的萎缩,减少了焦虑地思考。

This is potentially very important, since rumination is a known risk factor for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. “You're often zoomed in so narrowly on the situation that you're not thinking about anything else,” says Kross, whose book Chatter explores the effects of this negative self-talk. Awe forces us to broaden our perspective, he says, so that we break free of the ruminative cycle of thinking. “When you are in the presence of something vast and indescribable, you feel smaller, and so does your negative chatter,” he says.

这可能非常重要,因为沉思是抑郁症、焦虑症和创伤后应激障碍的已知风险因素。“你经常被狭隘地聚焦在一个情境中,以至于你没有想过其他的事情,”克罗斯说,他的《闲谈》(Chatter)一书探索了这种消极的自我对话的影响。敬畏迫使我们开阔视野,他说,这样我们就能打破思维的反刍循环。他说。“当你面对巨大而难以形容的事物时,你会觉得自己渺小,你的负面谈话也会到此为止。”

As evidence, Kross points to one extraordinary experiment by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley. The participants were military veterans and youth from underserved communities, many of whom were suffering serious life stress. (Some were even experiencing the lingering symptoms of PTSD.)

作为证据,克罗斯指出了加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)研究人员进行的一项非凡实验。参加者是退伍军人和问题青年,他们中许多人承受着严重的生活压力。(有些人甚至有创伤后应激障碍的后遗症。)

They had all previously signed up for a white-water rafting trip on Utah’s Green River, sponsored by a charitable organisation. Before and after the trip, they were questioned about their general psychological wellbeing – including their feelings of stress and their capacity to cope with life’s challenges. After each day of rafting, the participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that measured their feelings of awe, amusement, contentment, gratitude, joy and pride.

他们之前都报名参加了由一家慈善组织赞助的犹他州绿河激流漂流之旅。在旅行前后,研究人员对他们的总体心理健康状况进行了调查,包括他们的压力感受和应对生活挑战的能力。每天的漂流结束后,参与者被要求填写一份调查问卷,衡量他们的敬畏、娱乐、满足、感激、快乐和骄傲感。

As you might hope, the trip was generally very enjoyable for most of the participants. It was the feelings of awe, however, that predicted the biggest improvements in their feelings of stress and their overall wellbeing.

正如你所希望的那样,对于大多数参与者来说,这趟旅行总体上是非常愉快的。然而,敬畏的感觉预示着他们的压力感觉和整体幸福感获得最大的改善。

Clearly, these were exceptional circumstances – but the researchers noted very similar effects in a second study that examined students’ everyday contact with nature. Once again, they found that experiences of awe had a far greater impact on the students’ long-term wellbeing, compared to contentment, amusement, gratitude, joy and pride.

显然,这些都是特殊情况,但研究人员在第二项研究中发现了非常相似的效果,该研究调查了学生每天与大自然接触的状况。他们再次发现,与满足、娱乐、感恩、快乐和骄傲相比,敬畏的体验对学生的长期健康影响更大。

Awesome or awful?

敬畏或可怕?

Before we become too awestruck by this research, Shiota warns scientists still need to explore whether this potent emotion has any negative sides. She suspects that awe may explain the appeal of many conspiracy theories, for example – with their intricate and mysterious explanations of the world’s workings.

在我们被这项研究成果说服之前,施塔警告说,科学家们仍然需要探索这种强烈的情绪是否有任何消极的一面。她怀疑敬畏可以解释许多阴谋论为何有市场,例如,那些复杂而神秘的解释世界运行规律的理论。

In general, however, the benefits of awe are worth considering whenever we feel that our thinking has become stuck in an unproductive or unhealthy groove. “The capacity to step outside of ourselves is a really valuable skill,” says Kross. While he finds walking in his local arboretum, and thoughts about space travel, to bring the necessary feelings of wonder and reverential respect, he suggests that we will all have our personal preferences. “Try to identify what your own triggers are,” he suggests.

然而,总的来说,每当我们觉得自己的思维陷入一种无益或不健康的状态时,敬畏的好处就值得我们考虑。“走出自我的能力非常宝贵,”克罗斯说。当他在植物园里散步,想到太空旅行时,就会产生惊奇和敬畏之情,他认为我们都有个人喜好。他建议。“试着找出你自己的触发点产生敬畏。”

For Shiota, the possibilities are as infinite as the universe. “Stars in the night sky remind us of the universe beyond our experience; the sound of the ocean reminds us of its enormous depths; vivid sunsets remind us how vast and thick the atmosphere surrounding our planet is,” she says. That’s not to mention the sublime experiences offered by music, film or art. “It's all about choosing to experience and attend to the extraordinary in our world, rather than that which is, for us, routine.”

对施塔来说,可能性就像宇宙一样无限。“夜空中的星星让我们想起了身外的宇宙;海洋的声音让我们想起它巨大的深度;生动的日落提醒我们,我们星球周围的大气层是多么的广阔和厚重,”她说。更不用说音乐、电影或艺术所带来的崇高体验了。“这一切都是为了选择去体验和关注这个世界的非凡,而不是日常生活的琐碎。”

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抖音副总裁支颖:将大力投入知识内容建设******摘要

「通过创作和分享,抖音连接人,连接内容,连接服务。」

10 月 15 日,抖音在南京举办第三届创作者大会。抖音副总裁支颖发表演讲时表示,如今,整个短视频市场日活用户已超过 10 亿。视频直播已然成为一种国民级的表达方式。同时,短视频和抖音的普及,降低了表达门槛,促进了信息的流动,让更多人有了表达自己和被看见的机会。

现场,支颖分享了平台的发展历程和创作者故事,并回应了外界对平台价值、未来工作重点和发展方向的关注。

支颖介绍,经过五年的发展,抖音上的创作者来源更广,身份更多元,覆盖老师、运动员、艺术家、中小企业主等个人和企业、学校等机构,截止到今年 7 月,全国企业在抖音上开设的账号已经超过 800 万个。他们不仅在抖音创作,也在抖音经营着自己的事业。

提到平台未来的工作重点和发展方向时,支颖表示,加大知识、文化方向内容投入,让知识内容得到更好分发,将是未来抖音的工作重点,同时平台会依旧坚持严格的审核机制,全力优化用户体验。将一些基础工作做得更扎实,让现实生活更美好,「抖音的初心就是帮助大家记录美好生活,和大家一起共创美好生活,这是我们不变的使命。

以下是支颖演讲全文。

大家好!

欢迎大家来到抖音创作者大会的现场,特别高兴能跟大家在这里相聚。

我是支颖,16 年加入抖音团队。最早张楠跟我聊,说要做一个 UGC 短视频产品,来连接人、记录生活。我觉得,这很有意思,没见过,就加入进来。这五年,我在抖音团队参与过很多很杂的工作,运营、市场、产品、策略甚至安全等等。现在主要负责抖音的运营和市场。

今年是抖音第三年举办创作者大会,也是抖音上线的第五个年头。回想 2016 年抖音刚刚上线的时候,短视频还被很多人认为是年轻人用的小众对口型产品,到今天,整个短视频,包括视频号、快手,整体的日活用户已经超过了 10 亿人。可以说,视频直播已经成为一种国民级的表达方式。

这点表现在抖音,就是我们的创作者来源更广,身份更多元了。在座的创作者朋友其实都来自各行各业,有老师、运动员、艺术家、中小企业主等等。除了个人,还包括企业、学校等机构,截止到今年 7 月全国企业在抖音上开设的账号已经超过 800 万个。大家不仅在抖音创作,也在抖音经营着自己的事业。

我关注了一个和我差不多年纪的创作者,叫乡村小乔。她大学毕业后,返回家乡,通过抖音做三农创业,在记录乡村生活和美食、农村新鲜事的同时,也帮助各地老乡们销售农产品。去年年底,小乔在老家开了一个棉被厂。开业当天,提前准备的 2000 多床棉被在抖音直播间一抢而空。现在,小乔的棉被厂经营得不错,还帮 15 个老乡解决了就业。

年轻人返乡创业也能找到一片天地,抖音不仅拉近了年轻人和家乡的距离,也拉近了高等学府和普通人的距离。

大家都知道北京大学,但大家肯定不知道北大是抖音的一个「大主播」。去年一年,北京大学在抖音做了 199 场直播,平均下来每两天就有一场,内容基本都是北大老师的公开课或者讲座。北大现在有超过 430 万粉丝,我们都开玩笑说,北大在抖音有 430 万旁听生。

过去一年,像北大这样的高校直播公开课,在抖音上有超过 12000 场。很多网友说,没想到我也能在抖音上名校了。今天我们也邀请到北京大学的老师跟我们分享经验心得。

知识可以通过直播公开课的形式传播,但我们万万没想到,也可以通过非常另类的方式破圈。

前段时间,秦皇岛的反诈民警老陈火了。他在抖音通过直播连线的方式推广反诈 app,效果特别好。老陈这个做法带动了很多平台上其他创作者、主播参与进来,动员自己的粉丝下载反诈 APP,国家反诈中心 APP 有很长一段时间都排在苹果等多个应用商店下载榜第一位。

上面分享这几个故事,是想说,通过创作和分享,抖音连接人,连接内容,连接服务。网友可以坐在家里听到名校名师讲课,田间地头的好货能够走出大山。这些了不起的成绩,离不开在座各位创作者的智慧和努力,感谢大家!

我的同事告诉我,大家都比较期待,在这个场合了解抖音未来的工作重点、发展方向。其实,时至今日,我们没有特别的大招,更多是把一些基础工作做得更扎实一些,服务好更多用户,满足大家不同的需求。对抖音来说,最基础的,其实就是让好的、优质的内容被更多传播,把坏的、劣质的内容尽可能拦截下来。

所以未来,我们会对那些有较强社会价值的内容加大投入,像前面说的知识、文化品类。视频直播天然是传播知识很好的形式,让知识内容得到更好的分发,会是我们未来工作的一个重点。我们希望让更多用户在抖音看到丰富多元有价值的内容。

另外,我们也看到,短视频和抖音的普及,降低了表达门槛,促进了信息的流动,让更多人有了表达自己和被看见的机会。但同时,越来越多人的加入,也给抖音的平台治理带来了很大的挑战和争议。

可能在座的创作者会有一些感受,那就是抖音是所有平台里审核最严格的。这种严格甚至带来了一些创作的负向体验,包括我自己也经常会收到一些误伤的吐槽等等。

不好的体验我们会全力优化,但未来,我们仍然会坚持高标准不放松,因为我们相信善和美好的力量,相信向上的价值。

这些工作更具体的情况,我的同事晚些会跟大家详细介绍。

今天的主题是,创作让生活更美好。抖音的初心就是帮助大家记录美好生活,和大家一起共创美好生活,这是我们不变的使命。

谢谢大家。

抖音字节跳动支颖
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Tonga volcano relief efforts face challenges: UN******

AFP。

This handout photo taken on January 17, 2022, and received on January 18 from the New Zealand Defence Force shows a view from a P-3K2 Orion aircraft of an area covered in volcanic ash in Tonga, after the eruption of the Hunga-Tonga - Hunga-Haa'pai volcano on January 15.。

Relief efforts following the Tonga volcano eruption face the challenge of severed communications, falling ash closing the major airport and strict anti-COVID measures, UN officials said on Tuesday.。

They said the casualty toll remained at three dead and an unknown number of people injured.。

"Needs assessments by the Tongan authorities are ongoing and should provide a better estimate of what is required of the international community," said Stephane Dujarric, the chief spokesman for UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres. "We are on standby with teams and emergency supplies, and stocks in Tonga are being readied for distribution once humanitarian needs are identified."

"Our staff there are working to assist coordination and response efforts in-country," he told a regular press briefing. There are 23 UN workers in Tonga – 22 local hires and one international staffer.。

In a video conference, Jonathan Veitch, the UN acting resident and humanitarian coordinator for Fiji, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu, spelled out challenges following Saturday's eruption.。

Communications within the 36 inhabited of the nation's 169 islands were limited to satellite phones, as was the capital Nuku'alofa and between Tonga and the outside world.。

The major submarine communications cable was severed, cutting voice, video and Internet services. Still, Veitch said, "I'm able to send basic messages by SMS (Small Message Service –text) to our colleagues through satellite systems, and we hope that soon phones will be back up and running."

While the natural choice for humanitarians is to fly in relief, Veitch said the Nuku'alofa airport remained closed because workers were unable to finish clearing ashfall. He said ships sailing from Australia and New Zealand would take six to eight days to arrive in a Tonga port.。

He also said there is a question of just how the authorities would handle people coming to Tonga when it has extremely strict protocols against COVID-19. No cases have been reported in the nation. Authorities are keen to keep the country COVID-free, especially in light of past Pacific island populations wiped out by rampant disease.。

While there are no casualties among the 23 UN workers, there are an unknown number of injuries on outlying islands, Veitch said.。

He said damage reports from those islands are coming in slowly. The coordinator said it is possible that damage on the outlying islands may not be as severe since they are further from the volcaNo. The eruption occurred only 65 km from the main island of Tongatapu, home of the capital.。

"We are concerned about the water situation," Veitch said. "I haven't heard that people have run out of water which would be obviously an emergency situation. Of course we have heard that shops are running out of food and also there has been quite a lot of ... mass purchasing as always happens in these circumstances, including of water and of food supplies too."

Technicians are examining a desalination plant on the main island to see if it is ready to go back online. The expected ships carry water, food, emergency supplies and even desalination plants.。

The sooner, the better to get the supplies, the coordinator said. "It is urgent."

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